quinta-feira, 11 de setembro de 2008

Oil as Power plant

Oil means oil in rock, and was formed the millions and millions of years for the decomposition of sea organic substance, that is, when small plants and marine animals die are deposited in the deep one of the ocean, diverse layers of substance go soterrando and forming the calls sedimentary rocks. In adjusted pressures and temperatures, the microorganisms go transforming this organic soup into oil of the form that we conceive. As soon as the oil is discovered exists a economic feasibility study of its extration of form that will be economically viable the extration this oil goes to be removed and errand for a refinery, arriving at the refinery the oil will be separate in diverse fractions for fractionary destillation.

The rude oil possesss in its composition a chain of hydro-carbons, whose light fractions form the heavy gases and fractions the raw oils. The distribution of these percentages of hydro-carbons is that it defines the diverse existing types of oil in the world, being a product of great world-wide importance, mainly in our present time, is difficult to indirectly determine some thing that does not depend direct or of it. The solvents, combustible oils, gasoline, oil diesel, kerosene, gasoline of aviation, lubricant, asphalt, plastic among others are the main products gotten from the oil.

The oil occurs in many parts of the world: extensive deposits have been found in the Persian Gulf , the United States, Canada, Russia (in the Urais and Siberia occidental person), in the Lybian, the Delta of Rio Níger, in Venezuela, the Gulf of Mexico and the sea of the North. Reservoirs of oil in diverse depths exist and flattest (- 10 m that can be explored by mining) they are pastosos and with predominance in the composition with weighed carbonic hydro-carbons of chains (greases), and lightest in great depths (in the band of - 2,500 m - the 5,000 m).
The oil is the main power plant of the world. Together with the natural gas, that is a by-product of the industry of the oil, it feeds more than 60% of the energy necessities of the industrial economies. Although the enormous scientific and technological effort developed in last the 30 years to find sources alternative, not yet was found power plant, with comparable costs to the oil, that can substitute it. In these last thirty years, the possibility of the exhaustion of the petroliferous resources was perceived as a real threat in short term. The oil consumption grew in sped up rhythm while the discovery of new reserves was moved slowly.

The high price of the main power plant of the industrial world provoked severe economic contraction, reducing its consumption. Moreover, it induced the exploration of new sedimentary basins in search of new suppliment sources of this fossil fuel, as well as the search of more efficient technologies for the use of the energy and the substitution of the oil for alternative sources.

An analysis, limited strict to the aspect of the availability of resources, indicates that the known reserves and the expectation of new discoveries allow to keep the current consumption per at least others 50 years. The perceived problem as more serious, in short term , is the crisis politics in the Persian Gulf where if they concentrate the known reserves of oil (more than 60% of the reserves meet in this region). In the long stated period, the problem biggest is the perspective of strong rise of the fuel consumption in the developing countries for the pressure that this movement will come to exert on the world-wide reserves and the environment.

The good news is that Brazil possesss great petroliferous resources that in allow them to brighten up of significant form the effect of the strong oscillations of the suppliment conditions of oil in the world-wide market. However, the institucional mechanisms necessary to reach this objective still had not been established. The strong rise of the price of the oil in the year of 2008, associated to the strong cambial depreciation of the last months has provoked strong pressure in the price of the derivatives of oil with obvious inflationary impacts. The elect government will have that to think with brevity on this subject. A mechanism flexible tributary that allows to accomodate forts fluctuations in the price of the oil in the international market seems to be the sensible way to follow.

However, one sees that the oil is an indispensable good to the life human being. E so that this good survives will be necessary to increase the participation of the sources renewed in the energy production and, probably, of the atomic energy, searching a solution for the destination of the atomic garbage generated by the nuclear plants.

OLIVEIRA, Adilson de Oliveira, Oil: why the prices go up (and they go down)?
Available in: http://www.conciencia.br/reportagens/petroleo
Access in: 23 of May of 2008.
N3OBREGA, Olimpio Salty-Chemistry, volume only/Olimpio Salgado N3obrega, Eduardo Robert Da Silva, Ruth Hashimoto Da Silva; 1° ed. São Paulo; publishing company Stokes, 2005.